A transaction is a sequence of operations performed as a single logical unit of work. A logical unit of work must exhibit four properties, called the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) properties, to qualify as a transaction:
• A transaction must be an atomic unit of work; either all of its data
modifications are performed or none of them is performed.
• When completed, a transaction must leave all data in a consistent state. In a relational database, all rules must be applied to the transaction’s modifications to maintain all data integrity.
• Modifications made by concurrent transactions must be isolated from the modifications made by any other concurrent transactions. A transaction either see data in the state it was before another concurrent transaction modified it, or it sees the data after the second transaction has completed, but it does not see an intermediate state. This is referred to as serializability because it results in the ability to reload the starting data and replay a series of transactions to end up with the data in the same state it was in after the original transactions were performed.
• After a transaction has completed, its effects are permanently in place in the system. The modifications persist even in the event of a system failure.
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